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Elif Batuman’s Diary: Pamuk’s Museum

2 Jun

Reposted from:

London Review of Books, Vol. 34 No. 11 · 7 June 2012
pages 38-39 | 4470 words

In 2010, I moved from California, where I had lived for 11 years, to Turkey, where I had never stayed longer than a month or two. I had been offered a job as writer in residence at a private university in the forest on the northern edge of Istanbul. When I got there, I found out that the university had no writer in residence programme. It didn’t even have a writing programme. There was just me. The two living beings I saw with the most regularity were a campus groundsman, who always seemed to be standing in the bushes when I left the house, and an obese one-eyed black cat, who used to come in through my bedroom window. It had one green eye and one empty socket, and the minute it saw me with its single eye, it would start running from room to room, uttering piercing meows and crashing into the furniture. There was a lot of furniture, which had come with the apartment.

It wasn’t long before I heard that Orhan Pamuk was in town, building a museum. The museum was said to be full of stuff that had ‘belonged’ to the protagonists of his last novel, The Museum of Innocence. If you knocked on the door, he would let you in and show you the heroine’s old shoes. I hadn’t read The Museum of Innocence, and my general attitude to a novel-themed museum was one of mistrust. I place a high importance on the material self-reliance of a printed page. Kafka refused to put a picture of an insect on the cover of Metamorphosis. That’s what it is to believe in literature.

And yet, a year and a half later, I was wandering the twisted streets of Cihangir and Çukurcuma, looking for the Museum of Innocence. A press opening had been announced, with events scheduled from 9.30 in the morning till 11 at night – 13 and a half hours of innocence. I have a weak spot for endurance-style literary events. The day before the opening, I stopped by the campus bookstore and bought a copy of the novel, planning to skim the first hundred pages. I stayed up past two. The next day I took the metro to Taksim and walked down Siraselviler Avenue to Cihangir. Fifteen years ago, when Pamuk first bought a building here, Cihangir had been a working-class area dotted with small workshops specialising in the manufacture of plastic tubs and children’s footballs. Today the proletarian teahouses and barbershops are outnumbered by vegan-friendly cafés and the showrooms of increasingly ironic antiquarians. On Çukurcuma Street, I passed a bathtub with feet and a bench inscribed with the words DIRE STRAITS. Nearby, a cat had made itself comfortable in some kind of venerable stone urn – only its satisfied head was sticking out.

The morning press conference, held at a restaurant near the museum, was so packed I couldn’t get in the door. Standing on tiptoe outside the banqueting hall, I counted ten television crews. One of the cameramen, a burly felonious-looking type with a shaved head, winked at me. I retreated into the shadowy corridor, where I stared at an old wall and listened to Pamuk who, between fielding questions from the press (‘The man in love – he is a little bit sick?’), was telling the story of the museum.

The inspiration for the Museum of Innocence came to Pamuk in 1982, while he was having dinner with the last prince of the Ottoman dynasty. Exiled after the formation of the Turkish republic, the prince ended up in Alexandria and worked for decades at the Antoniadis Palace museum, first as a ticket collector and then as director. Now, back in Istanbul after a fifty-year exile, he needed a job. The guests discussed the delicate subject of employment for the straitened septuagenarian prince of a defunct empire. Someone said the Ihlamur Palace museum might need a guide: who better than the prince, who had lived there as a child?

Pamuk was immediately taken by the idea of a man who outlives his era and becomes the guide to his own house-museum. He imagined how the prince would greet visitors – ‘Ladies and gentlemen! Seventy years ago, in this room, I sat with my aide-de-camp and studied mathematics!’ – before crossing the velvet cordon to sit once more at his childhood desk, demonstrating how he had held the pencil and ruler.

Ten years later, Pamuk came up with an insane plan: to write a novel in the form of a museum catalogue, while simultaneously building the museum to which it referred. The plot of the novel would be fairly straightforward: over many years, an unhappy lover contrives to steal a large number of objects belonging to his unattainable beloved, after whose untimely death he proceeds to buy her family’s house and turn it into a museum.

You might think that Pamuk’s first step, as a writer, would have been to start writing. In fact, his first step was to contact a real-estate agent. He needed to buy a house for his future heroine, Füsun. During the 1990s, Pamuk visited hundreds of properties, trying to imagine Füsun and her parents living in them. It was beyond his means to purchase a whole building in Nişantaşi, the posh neighbourhood inhabited by Kemal, the hero of the novel. He could afford a single floor in a stone building in the old Ottoman commercial centre of Galata, but then the remodelling would be difficult. The beautiful rundown wooden houses near the old city walls were the right price, but those were in religious neighbourhoods, and this was a novel about the secular middle classes. In 1998, Pamuk finally bought a three-storey wooden house in Çukurcuma. Füsun, the petulant beauty, was thus neither a Nişantaşi socialite nor the scion of Galata bankers, but an aspiring actress living with her seamstress mother and schoolteacher father. The heroine’s socioeconomic position and much of her character were determined by real estate.

For the next ten years, writing and shopping proceeded in a dialectical relationship. Pamuk would buy objects that caught his eye, and wait for the novel to ‘swallow’ them, demanding, in the process, the purchase of further objects. Occasionally an object refused to be swallowed, as happened with some carriage lanterns and an old gas meter. Pamuk published The Museum of Innocence in 2008. It resembles less a museum catalogue than a 600-page audio guide. A ticket printed in the back of each copy grants one free entry to the museum. By that point he had already acquired nearly all of Füsun’s belongings, so the museum could, in theory, have opened the next day. But Pamuk was worried about the example of Edouard Dujardin, the French writer sometimes credited with pioneering, in a largely forgotten text called Les Lauriers sont coupés, the stream of consciousness. Pamuk didn’t want to be Dujardin. He wanted to be Joyce. It wasn’t enough just to build the world’s first synergetic novel-museum. The museum had to be a thing of beauty. He hired a team of artists and curators and worked full time in the museum for several months, taking naps on Kemal’s bed in the attic.

I left the press conference in a dreamy frame of mind, and headed to one of the local vegan-friendly cafés, to drink coffee and finish The Museum of Innocence. As has often been observed, it’s nice to read realist novels in their original locations. One character was talking about a brothel in a seven-storey Greek building on Siraselviler, the street I had taken from the metro to Cihangir. In the novel, the police raided the brothel, ‘sealing off only one floor, obliging the girls there to take their admirers to another one that was, nonetheless, adorned with the same furniture and mirrors’. I thought it was a pretty good model for a brothel to have seven identical floors.

When I left the café, a young man who looked like he might be a vegan was getting onto a Vespa, accompanied by a tiny grey monkey. The monkey had a tremendously detailed, worried little face. ‘Up, Hasan!’ the young man said, starting the engine, and the monkey hopped onto the handlebars. They drove away. I walked back down to Çukurcuma. The bathtub was still there, but the cat wasn’t. I turned a corner and the museum came into view, its narrow wooden façade painted the deep red of a pre-revolutionary fez. Eighty-three exhibits, most inside glass vitrines, correspond to the book’s 83 chapters. Many of the displayed objects look just like the novel said they would: the prosthetic hand belonging to Kemal’s father’s employee; the white sock and tennis shoe worn by Füsun to her rendezvous with Kemal on the day of his engagement to another woman; the quince grater stolen by Kemal from Füsun’s mother shortly after the 1980 coup. At the press conference, a French-sounding journalist had asked Pamuk why the novel didn’t devote more pages to the 1980 coup. Pamuk replied: ‘I expressed what I had to say about the 1980 coup through Füsun’s mother’s quince grater, which appears in Box 66.’

Other boxes contained material interpretations of things that, in the book, had no material. In Chapter 29, Kemal goes to bed each night hoping to forget Füsun, but always wakes ‘to the same pain, as if a black lamp were burning eternally inside me’. Box 29 contains a sculpture called Black Light Machine which, incorporating parts from a toy steamboat, a 19th-century pasta machine and several clocks, represents this eternally burning black lamp of unforgettable love.

Some items mentioned in the novel as forming part of Kemal’s collection – an Alaska Frigo bar, a Thermos of tea, a plate of stuffed vine leaves – leave you uncertain as to whether you’re dealing with unreliable narration, magical realism, or perhaps a highly sophisticated system of refrigeration. All these items appear in the museum, and so does the half-eaten ice-cream cone that Füsun tossed on the ground in Istinye, modelled in plastic by expert food replicators who do a lot of work for Turkish soap operas. Contemplating a glass of polymer-based rakı with ice, I wondered whether a museum could be said to be magical realist, or unreliably narrated. I decided to ask Pamuk: he said only that he wanted the museum to be ‘a place where time is frozen’.

The most elaborate visual representation of frozen time is Box 68, 4213 Cigarette Stubs. It contains all the cigarette stubs discarded by Füsun and collected by Kemal between 1976 and 1984, mounted in rows and columns on a floor-to-ceiling panel. From a distance, it looks like a giant cuneiform text. Up close, you can see that many of the filters are stained with lipstick or sour-cherry ice cream, Füsun’s favourite. To complete the display, Pamuk’s assistants emptied out several hundred boxes of Samsun regulars (Füsun’s brand), replaced the tobacco with chemically treated paper, set the cigarettes on fire, and put them in a vacuum machine. ‘The vacuum smoked these cigarettes, not us,’ Pamuk says, specifying that no anti-smoking laws were violated in the construction of the display, which is, indeed, a testimony to the unhealthiness of smoking, as well as a contribution to the anthropology of lost gestures.

4213 Cigarette Stubs was designed by Kiymet Daştan, an Istanbul sculptor and jewellery designer, who also built the Black Light Machine. Kiymet turned out to be a friend of a friend of mine. My friend – a conceptual artist whose works in progress include a monument to time made out of her own hair – arranged a meeting for us, which ended up taking place on the deck of a Bosphorus ferry. I asked whether the stains on the filters were real. ‘Yes,’ Kiymet said, in a small voice nearly drowned out by the wind. ‘I ate a lot of ice cream.’ She also had to redo six or seven hundred cigarettes, because Pamuk said she was wearing too much lipstick, much more than Füsun. Pamuk spent last summer captioning each stub, by hand, with the date of its retrieval by Kemal. Under some samples, he wrote scraps of recorded conversation (‘Are you looking at the clock?’).

Though it isn’t as technically impressive as Box 68, I was just as struck by Box 1, The Happiest Moment of My Life. It contains a single gold butterfly earring suspended in front of a tulle curtain, which trembles by some mechanical or magical-realist means. The composition represents a moment during the couple’s brief physical relationship when one of Füsun’s butterfly-shaped earrings is knocked loose and, ‘for all we knew, hovered in midair before falling of its own accord’. The quivering earring seems to afford a glimpse not just of the time of Eros, but of the Eros of time – the way it can hover before your eyes, golden and tremulous. Kemal spends the next eight years working and working to get Füsun back in bed. The museum does the same thing: labouring to re-create, through thousands of hours of cigarette-squashing and clock-dismantling, an effortless instant. Replicas of the earring may be purchased in the museum shop.

The museum logo is a butterfly and, in the scene with the butterfly earring, Füsun is 18 and the narrator is 30. I don’t usually care for Nabokov references and I’m not crazy about butterflies, but I found The Museum of Innocence to be one of the few books I’ve read that alludes to Lolita successfully. It made me realise why Lolita is a novel about paedophilia. Lolita has to be impossibly young, because the brevity of youth is a metonym for the brevity of life, and the monstrousness of Humbert’s passion is the monstrousness of facelifts, or of Lenin’s tomb, or of the wedding cake in Great Expectations. ‘Exhibit number two,’ Humbert says early in Lolita, ‘is a pocket diary bound in black imitation leather, with a golden year, 1947, en escalier, in its upper left-hand corner.’ Although Lolita is narrated from a prison and not a museum, the profusion of birdcages in the Museum of Innocence tips you off to a figurative equivalence. Humbert, Kemal and the last Ottoman prince share a family resemblance to the ape credited by Nabokov with inspiring Lolita: the one ‘in the Jardin des Plantes who, after months of coaxing by a scientist, produced the first drawing ever charcoaled by an animal’, showing the bars of its cage.

There are differences, of course, between a caged animal and a deposed pasha. Humbert is bombastically exasperated by his prison, despising the furniture, plotting to murder Lolita’s mother, drugging Lolita – basically rattling the bars and throwing garbage at the visitors. Kemal, by contrast, peaceably eats dinner in front of the TV with Füsun and her parents for eight years. When Füsun is out, he sits alone with her parents, complimenting the mother on her stuffed zucchini, telling the father how telephones ring in America, never once attempting to slip anyone any barbiturates. ‘I tasted pleasures I’d never known before,’ he writes of the 1593 evenings spent in this fashion. To me there’s something deeply Turkish and hilarious about this. When he gets a chance to spirit Füsun away to Paris, he has his father’s chauffeur drive them in the 1956 Chevrolet, and he brings Füsun’s mother along.

Unlike most novels treating the theme of lovers kept apart by society, The Museum of Innocence is narrated without anger. Kemal seems to like everyone in the story, from Füsun’s goofy husband to her conventional mother. The vulgar is so intertwined with the sublime that Kemal, unlike Humbert, has no thought of detaching Füsun from the ‘objects that had made her who she was’. The type of bric-à-brac that seems like an aesthetic rupture in Lolita’s mother’s front hall – ‘door chimes, a white-eyed wooden thingumabob of commercial Mexican origin, and that banal darling of the arty middle class, Van Gogh’s Arlésienne’ – is meaningful and appropriate in Füsun’s mother’s buffet: ‘the never-used coffee cups, the old clock … the little glass vase with the spiralling floral pattern whose likeness one could see displayed on the buffet of any middle-class family in the city’. Pamuk’s museum restores a specialness to objects of mass production, transmuting quantity into quality. A middle-class fake is more magical than a priceless painting, precisely because it’s everywhere at once.

Late in the novel, no matter where in the world his Byronic gloom takes him, Kemal can’t stop running into Füsun’s mother’s saltshaker. Cairo, Barcelona, New Delhi, Rome: ‘To contemplate how this saltshaker had spread to the farthest reaches of the globe suggested a great mystery, as great as the way migratory birds communicate among themselves, always taking the same routes every year.’ You can imagine Marxist criticism deploring the displacement of birds by saltshakers, condemning the globalisation that enables you to travel halfway around the world only to find the same napkin dispenser sitting on the table. But you can imagine another Marxist criticism glimpsing here some version of the truth that Fredric Jameson said was essentially impossible to convey in the novel: ‘Never has the world been so completely humanised as in industrial times; never has so much of the individual’s environment been the result, not of blind natural forces, but of human history itself.’

Every few years, Pamuk writes, ‘another wave of saltshakers’ washes in, replacing the old generation. People ‘forget the objects with which they had lived so intimately, never even acknowledging their emotional attachment to them’. Unlike the Mona Lisa, which is always and only in the Louvre, the saltshakers are everywhere for a few years, and then they’re gone, shifting the dimension of rarity from space to time. As rarities, some of them are salvaged by collectors. Pamuk believes that the appearance of collectors is one of the inevitable historical stages of modernisation. But collectors are cranky, capricious types, liable to lavish all their attention on postcards and bottle caps while ignoring all kinds of other things – toothbrushes, for example. Pamuk was astounded by the difficulty of getting hold of 1970s toothbrushes: how could they all have vanished from the face of the earth? After he mentioned the problem in an interview, a reader sent him a large collection of old toothbrushes that would otherwise have been lost to posterity.

The evening of the opening, Pamuk hosted a cocktail reception for 385 people on the terrace of a nearby restaurant. Waiters passed among the guests, distributing cloudy glasses of raki that looked exactly like the plastic replicas in the museum. I met Pamuk’s editor, who made my head explode by relating that, since he hadn’t ended up writing the novel in the form of a museum catalogue, Pamuk had recently decided to write the catalogue as a separate book. (The English translation, The Innocence of Objects, will be published later this year.) Borges could have written a four-page story about the madman who builds a museum while writing a novel about building the museum, but Pamuk wrote the novel, built the museum, and then wrote a book-length catalogue about it.

Pamuk himself arrived, betraying no signs of fatigue from the large-scale strains of his artistic process. His editor reminded him to address the guests: ‘Tell them about the food,’ she suggested. Pamuk took the microphone. ‘Ladies and gentlemen!’ he said. ‘I know you are all worried about the food. Well, don’t worry. There is enough food.’ The dishes being served, he said, were all the kinds of thing that Füsun’s family would have eaten in the 1970s. ‘Do you think that means fondue?’ I overheard an American diplomat ask. The party lasted a long time. I met a typesetter described as the world’s best decipherer of Pamuk’s handwriting. Ara Güler, the master photographer of Istanbul, sat under a tree surrounded by admirers; the museum contains some cityscapes from his personal archives.

The waiter brought round a tray with Füsun’s favourite stuffed vine leaves. I wondered whether Füsun wore less lipstick than I do. Füsun’s face is one thing you never do see in the museum. Pamuk calls it a ‘tactical error’ for writers to show their characters’ faces, on book jackets or elsewhere. I wondered why it was OK to show all Füsun’s personal effects when it was not OK to show her person. It occurred to me that the novel, though fiction, isn’t uniformly fictional. Endings are fake, because nothing in real life ever ends; characters are composites, because real people are either too close to you or too far. But the furniture and clothes: that stuff must almost all be real. There’s no way Balzac invented all that furniture. All those soaring ambitions and human destinies are just a pretext for telling the truth about the sofas and the clocks.

As Nabokov himself once established with entomological diagrams, Kafka had no clear picture of what his insect looked like. On the other hand, he probably had a clear picture of the framed magazine picture on Gregor’s wall (‘a lady fitted out with a fur hat and fur boa who sat upright, raising a heavy fur muff that covered the whole of her lower arm towards the viewer’) and the ‘cool, leather sofa’ and the cigarettes and the textile samples. No matter how you showed the insect, it would be a lie. But physical things, the mass-produced brothers and sisters, have a certain truth. Like Orthodox icons, they are ‘images not made by hands’: symbols that are also somehow identical to the things they represent. When you watch a film adaptation of a novel, you always have to stop and ask yourself what are the odds that Eugene Onegin happened to look exactly like Ralph Fiennes, and yet a teapot from the right historical period is a real part of the world that created the character and plot. If you had enough of the textile samples and magazine pictures and sofas, maybe you could re-create the insect.

When Kemal visits the Proust Museum in Illiers-Combray, and sees ‘the portraits of those who had served as models’ for Proust’s work, he leaves ‘none the wiser about his novels, though possessing a clearer idea of the world in which the author had lived.’ The portraits are a red herring. The real ‘models’ aren’t the people in the portraits, but the world around the people: not only the furniture but the psycho-sexual furniture too. All those saltshakers and cigarettes, manmade yet inhuman, coming and going in waves, stand for the rules we live by: in the case of The Museum of Innocence, sexual ethics. That’s the mass-produced object that we’re all conditioned by. We all have the same one sitting on our dining table.

I left the party close to midnight and made my way back up Siraselviler Avenue, wondering which building had contained the brothel with seven identical floors. I thought about how much I preferred The Museum of Innocence to Pamuk’s memoir,Istanbul: Memories and the City. At the press conference a German journalist had asked whether ‘Füsun’ was intentionally reminiscent of hüzün, a word used by Pamuk to designate Istanbul’s unique and shameful post-imperial melancholy. ‘Westerners coming to the city often fail to notice’ Istanbul’s hüzün, which ‘stands at a great metaphysical distance’ from the more individualistic melancholy of Burton: this metaphysical remove mirrors ‘the distance Istanbullus feel from the centres of the West’.

When I first read Istanbul, ten years ago in California, I didn’t see why disused fountains should fill anyone not responsible for their maintenance with ‘shame and melancholy’, or why anyone should experience living in Istanbul as ‘the melancholy and desolation of sharing [the city’s] shameful fate’. I knew many Turks of my parents’ generation who were brought up to view the fall of the Ottoman Empire as a great personal humiliation, one the West was constantly sneering at. But this didn’t make me any more sympathetic to what I saw as the romanticisation of hüzün. Frankly, I’m still unsympathetic. I think pride and shame should be based on what you do, not who you are. For Istanbul to have its own special shameful melancholy, imperceptible to everyone except Istanbullus and maybe Claude Lévi-Strauss, sounds to me like an invitation for a bunch of self-important lugubrious dudes to sit around doing nothing and feeling like they’re fulfilling their Hegelian role (if only Hegel applied to the East).

In response to the question about hüzün and Füsun, Pamuk said that he had writtenIstanbul right in the middle of working on The Museum of Innocence. Resonances would be unavoidable. That was when I realised that my exasperation with Istanbul was directly proportional to my admiration for The Museum of Innocence, and that, to my mind, it was less a matter of ‘resonances’ than of balancing the books. It was as if, in the year he took off from the novel to write the memoir, Pamuk had poured all the rancour from his heart. (‘Until the age of 45,’ he writes in Istanbul, ‘it was my habit, whenever I was drifting in that sweet cloud between sleep and wakefulness, to cheer myself by imagining I was killing people.’) When Kemal feels shame, it isn’t geographic or metaphysical. It’s the reasonable and understandable shame of a man who chooses to spend eight years collecting his married ex-lover’s cigarette stubs. The replacement of hüzün (melancholy) by füsun (magic) mirrors the central truth of the novel: ‘If the objects that bring us shame are displayed in a museum,’ Kemal realises, ‘they are immediately transformed into possessions in which to take pride.’ The Museum of Innocence is a machine that processes shame into pride. By the last sentence of the novel, the conversion is complete: ‘Let everyone know, I lived a very happy life.’

Pamuk’s ‘Museum of Innocence’ opens in Istanbul

30 Apr

Turkish Writer Opens Museum Based on Novel

Orhan Pamuk, center, whose novel “The Museum of Innocence” led to the museum, which opened on Saturday in Istanbul. Photo: Jodi Hilton for The New York Times. More Photos »
Published: April 29, 2012

ISTANBUL — The first thing you see are the cigarette butts. There are thousands of them — 4,213 to be exact — mounted behind plexiglass on the ground floor of the Nobel laureate Orhan Pamuk’s new museum, named for and based on his 2008 novel, “The Museum of Innocence.”

It’s a fittingly strange beginning to a tour of this quirky museum, tucked away in a 19th-century house on a quiet street in the Cukurcuma neighborhood, among junk shops that sell old brass, worn rugs and other bric-a-brac.

But it is also, like everything else on the museum’s four floors, a specific reference to the novel — each cigarette has supposedly been touched by Fusun, the object of the narrator’s obsessive love — and, by extension, an evocation of the bygone world in which the book is set.

The Museum of Innocence” is about Istanbul’s upper class beginning in the 1970s, a time when Mr. Pamuk was growing up in the elite Nisantasi district. He describes the novel as a love story set in the melancholic back streets of that neighborhood and other parts of the European side of the city. But more broadly it is a chronicle of the efforts of haute-bourgeois Istanbulis to define themselves by Western values, a pursuit that continues today as Turkey as a whole takes a more Islamic turn. Although Mr. Pamuk said the book explores the “pretensions” of upper-class Turks, who “in spite of their pro-Western attitudes are highly conservative,” it is hard not to the see the bricks-and-mortar Museum of Innocence as largely an act of nostalgic appreciation.

Mr. Pamuk, 59, is Turkey’s best-known writer, albeit a divisive one thanks to his Western orientation. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2006, around the time he was being tried and acquitted for making “un-Turkish” pronouncements about the Armenian genocide. In person he gives off an aura of the kind of elitism that can come with a privileged upbringing and a successful literary career.

As the museum was preparing to open late last week, with workmen hauling around ladders and a staff member stocking the gift-shop shelves with Mr. Pamuk’s books, the author himself was going full tilt, giving orders and making last-minute tweaks as he walked a reporter through the displays.

He said the museum cost him about what he received for the Nobel — roughly $1.5 million — including what he paid for the house 12 years ago, when he had the idea for the project. Then there is the amount of time he has devoted to it on and off over the past dozen years: by his estimate about half a book’s worth, a lot considering that his novels tend to run to 500 pages or more.

The museum’s displays are organized according to the story line of “The Museum of Innocence,” which opens as a wealthy, self-centered young man is making love with Fusun, a distant relative and store clerk he has met while shopping for his soon-to-be fiancée.

“And as I softly bit her ear, her earring must have come free and, for all we knew, hovered in midair before falling of its own accord,” an opening line reads. Mr. Pamuk paused in front of the first of 83 display cases — there is one for each chapter of the book — and pointed to a single earring. Then he moved along to other vitrines, talking about how items were chosen and how a few displays were still works in progress even after all these years of preparation.

“As far as I know this is the first museum based on a novel,” he said. “But it’s not that I wrote a novel that turned out to be successful and then I thought of a museum. No, I conceived the novel and the museum together.”

While writing the book he collected more than a thousand artifacts that reflect the story, from a tricycle to dozens of ceramic dogs, from lottery tickets to news clippings of women with black lines drawn across their eyes (once standard in Turkish newspaper coverage of women connected to scandal).

Mr. Pamuk’s protagonist and narrator, Kemal Basmaci, becomes more and more obsessed with Fusun as other aspects of his life fall apart, and eventually he begins collecting things — and stealing them from Fusun’s home — in what will ultimately become his life’s work: the building of a museum in tribute to his onetime lover. For a time Mr. Pamuk became Kemal, looking for pieces that reflected each chapter as he wrote it, searching the junk shops of Istanbul and other parts of the world. The collection he assembled reflected not only the plot of “The Museum of Innocence,” but also Istanbul during Turkey’s halting movement into the modern era.

“We remembered how the Istanbul bourgeoisie had trampled over one another to be the first to own a electric shaver, a can opener, a carving knife, and any number of strange and frightening inventions, lacerating their hands and faces as they struggled to learn how to use them,” Kemal says in the book.

Such items too are in the museum, along with old clocks, film clips, soda bottles and clothes of the era.

At the top of the house Mr. Pamuk sat down on a bench in front of the bed where Kemal is meant to have slept in the last years of his life as he assembled the museum. It was lonely-looking piece of furniture.

The Museum of Innocence opened to a small crowd on Saturday morning, after a packed news conference on Friday at one of Istanbul’s fanciest restaurants. Most of the visitors seemed to be fans of the book who wanted to match their vision with Mr. Pamuk’s. There was Latife Koker, who had traveled an hour and a half by bus that morning; Renata Lapanja, who lives in Slovenia; and Erdogan Solmaz, who, like Mr. Pamuk in his youth, is an architecture student at a university in Istanbul. He said Mr. Pamuk’s efforts had made this collection starkly different from others in the city, which has some of the finest museums in the world.

“This one is about people,” Mr. Solmaz said. “This is much more personal and dramatic.”

Personal, yes, but only to a point, Mr. Pamuk said. “This is not Orhan Pamuk’s museum,” he said. “Very little of me is here, and if it is, it’s hidden. It’s like fiction.” In his view both the book and the museum are largely about sadness, and in particular the “melancholy of the period.”

A version of this article appeared in print on April 30, 2012, on page C1 of the New York edition with the headline: Turkish Writer Opens Museum Based on Novel.

How to: Make Your Own Scratch-And-Sniff Map

19 Apr
Nicola Twilley

NICOLA TWILLEY – Nicola Twilley is author of the blog Edible Geography, co-founder of theFoodprint Project, and director of Studio-X NYC, an urban futures network run by Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Preservation, and Planning.

OCT 6 2010, 9:40 AM ET 5

instructions nutty.jpgThis post explains how to make a scratch-and-sniff map, from start to finish.You may question what possible relevance this information has for you.

I would reply that I found myself agreeing to make not just one, but two scratch-and-sniff maps of New York City almost entirely by accident earlier this year. And even if you are more sensible than I am, and would never agree to such ill-informed adventures, it turns out that the magic of scratch-and-sniff map-making opens an entirely new perspective on the world — an unexpected and invisible cartography of emotion, confusion and memory.

The first step, of course, is to decide what smells you are mapping. (The rest of the how-to comes a bit further down the page). Perhaps the earliest attempt to make an urban smell map dates back to Paris in the 1790s, when new ideas about both political equality and hygiene combined to send physician Jean-Noël Hallé on a six-mile odor-recording expedition along the banks of the Seine. His map-making technology consisted of nothing more than a notebook and pencil — and, of course, his nose.

Sissel Tolaas smell walk.jpg

Today, artist Sissel Tolaas is the world’s pre-eminent olfactory cartographer. She is midway through a survey of Kansas City, having already smell-mapped Paris, Vienna and Mexico City, with Nuuk and Calcutta next on her list. Although Tolaas still relies heavily on her nose, which she has spent years training, she also has a couple of important tools at her disposal, as she described her urban smell mapping process to me:

I try to go back to sites a couple of times to identify which smells remain over time and which change. If I have the time, I go back in different seasons and in different weather, so I can see which smells are important, underlying smells and how they change in different conditions. And I focus on finding the source for smells. If the source is definable and tangible, I can grab a sample and do a chemical analysis using a GCMS [a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer] in my lab. If the source is not something that’s portable, and if the budget allows, I will bring headspace technology into the field.

Headspace Technology.jpg

“Headspace” refers to a prohibitively expensive and utterly fascinating technology invented in the 1980s byDr. Braja Mookherjee, a scientist at IFF, one of the world’s largest fragrance and flavor companies. Mookherjee was obsessed with capturing the exact odor you experience when you put your nose up to, say, a living jasmine flower, rather than relying on an extract, or “absolute,” as it’s called in the perfumery business. In a paper (pdf) published in 1990 — the same year IFF trademarked Mookherjee’s discovery as “IFF Living Flower Technology” — Mookherjee described his dissatisfaction with natural oils and extracts:

Before the extraction process, the fruits, flowers, and other plant parts must, of course, be picked. Very few people are aware of the fact that most fruits and flowers when picked soon exhibit a modified aroma from that of the living entity. This aroma continues to change with the process of decay. Hence, the oil obtained from the picked plant part does not replicate the aroma of the living material.

Braja Mookherjee patent drawings 1.jpg

Living and Picked peach.jpg

IFF Botanical Gardens.jpg

Sadly, Dr. Mookherjee passed away a few years ago, but Helen Murphy, IFF’s Director of New Fragrance Development, explained how his process works to capture the odor your nose actually smells:

The idea is to capture, analyze, and then create the smell of nature. We use a special apparatus that captures the volatile components from the air surrounding the flower, fruit or plant. This is then analyzed in our R&D labs using a GCMS analytical machine that gives a fingerprint of the ingredients found in the flower. It is then possible to recreate this smell by putting together the different ingredients that were found in the analysis.

To Try This At Home:

#1: Decide what smell information you want to map

Whether you use want to document and recreate the smelled reality of a city, like artist Sissel Tolaas, visualize a data set (for example, the geographical distribution of different types of fast-food outlets to regional variations in perfume popularity), or use your map to reconstruct historical or personal smell memories, you will need to gather your data and determine which chemicals or blends you are going to use. Depending on your map and budget, your tools at this stage can range from census data, market research, and scientific studies to headspace technology, a mass spectrometer, and your nose.

#2: Source and prepare your smells

Be prepared for difficulty and expense at this stage. Both chemical supply companies and fragrance and flavor houses will initially freak out at the idea that an individual (as opposed to a corporation the size of Kraft or Pepsi) might want to order their product. Even once you get over that hurdle, many of the ingredients you want will be unavailable, more expensive per ounce than gold, or only sold in five-gallon drums. If you need to mix or dilute smells, you will want to contact a scientific supply company or borrow a lab in order to pipette with any degree of accuracy.

#3: Micro-encapsulate your smells within a printable slurry

Although online information gives a reasonably clear idea of how this process works, I’d have to recommend not trying it at home unless you are an organic chemist for whom terms like “coacervation” and “partition co-efficients” hold no fear. Even the professionals at Arcade — Anne Spratt and Gary Akins — had a hard time making one of my smells (guaiacol, a smoky-smelling molecule present in the aroma of roasted coffee) “work” — the capsule walls wouldn’t stay intact until Akins added more diluent to the mix.

In order to create new raw ingredients for their perfumers and flavorists, Murphy told me that IFF has performed headspace analysis on an entire, specially planted botanical garden (above) full of fruit, flowers, herbs, and seeds. If her team finds an interesting or new smell, they can simply request a headspace analysis. “We have a huge library of these Livings,” she said. “You don’t have to limit it to flowers, obviously. We’ve used it to do things like the smell of a stone, the smell of mothers’ milk, and even the smell of the skin of a virgin.”

For IFF’s perfumers, the smell of a street corner in London is just another ingredient, to be combined and blended with other notes to make it more wearable, complex or beautiful. For Tolaas, that same smell is information that can be used to both navigate and understand the city. Rather than improvise upon odiferous reality, she creates a map built of smells, exactly as she found them.

But aspiring smell-mappers need not only document reality. Just like their non-odorous counterparts, smell maps can chart a layer of personal experience, history or social trends atop spatial reality. My maps, for example, which are now on display as part of the “You Are Here” exhibition at thePratt Manhattan Gallery, sit side-by-side to compare New Yorkers’ majority and individual smell preferences.

In other words, my scratch-and-sniff maps show how New Yorkers’ smell, rather than what. To make them, I extrapolated data from the as-yet-unpublished results of an extensive study that tested the responses of four hundred New Yorkers to sixty-six different smells over a two-year period from March 2005. The experiment was conducted by Andreas Keller and Leslie B. Vosshall at the Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, The Rockefeller University.

“Our main goal was to try to find the difference between different variants in the DNA and different ways that people rank the smells on a seven-point scale from extremely unpleasant to extremely pleasant,” Keller said. “We collected our subjects’ demographic information just to control for those types of influences.”

Nonetheless, that demographic information revealed some fascinating and significant differences in smell perception between men and women, young and old, and different ethnicities. For my map, I chose twelve of Vosshall and Keller’s most interesting test smells, from complex natural extracts such as nutmeg and vanilla to single-note synthetic molecules such as octyl acetate, which is the basis for many artificial orange flavors as well as a key ingredient in Chanel No.5.

Two scratch and sniff maps.jpg

Personal smells.jpg

#4: Add a binder and apply the slurry

Again, this is best left to the professionals. For scratch-and-sniff stickers, the slurry is pressed onto the artwork by a pad or roller and then blow-dried, as the final step on a flexographic printing press. Artist Sissel Tolaas has also developed formulae that can be painted onto fabric and walls.

#5: Make the map

Apply your stickers or paint in a way that best represents your geographic data. In my case, that involved attaching about a thousand circular stickers onto the wall using a projected map of New York City’s community districts, as well as spreadsheets that combined census data with Leslie Vosshall and Andreas Keller’s findings, in order to guide my placement.

#6: Scratch! Then sniff!

You can’t “read” a scratch-and-sniff map without getting intimate. And while you’re processing its geographic olfactory information, expect to gain a new awareness of your odor environment, trigger long-lost memories, discover unexpected smell prejudices, and even diagnose a previously unsuspected selectiveanosmia (the inability to smell certain molecules — it’s more common than you think).

Sourcing those chemicals was tough enough — some, such as galaxolide, an artificial musk, were so jaw-droppingly expensive that I was lucky to secure a donation, while others only came in five-gallon barrels (I needed roughly a pound to make a thousand stickers), and all had to be shipped as hazardous material. Most came from chemical supplierSigma Aldrich and IFF itself.

But I was lucky, because at least the smells I was working with were popular enough to be commercially available. Sissel Tolaas told me that she frequently struggles to find the “bad-smelling” molecules she needs to recreate reality.

Still, with the odorant chemicals in hand, my next challenge was to work out how to turn them into scratch-and-sniff stickers. I turned to a Chattanooga-based company, Arcade Marketing, whose business is to provide sampling solutions to fragrance, cosmetics and food companies. If you’ve ever peeled back a perfume ad in a glossy magazine, chances are it was made by Arcade.

According to Anne Spratt, Arcade’s Director of Fragrance Lab Services, to make the stickers for my map, she used a proprietary technique called MicroFragrance Scratch ‘n’ Sniff technology to microencapsulate the chemicals I sent them, and then apply the resulting slurry to clear stickers.

“We put your materials in our test lab reactor where they were mixed at high speed to form droplets in an emulsion,” Spratt told me. “The speed at which we mix determines the size of the droplets and we’re making very small droplets that are less than twenty microns in size. They are not visible to the naked eye.”

Arcade then adds proprietary ingredients (including some kind of water-soluble polymer), which allow a “wall” material to form around the droplets, in order to create microcapsules. Under carefully controlled conditions of time, temperature and pH, this wall will harden, leaving the microcapsules of fragrance suspended in a sort of slurry. At this point, you’re nearly there, as Anne explained:

The reaction begins on day one. If the encapsulation goes perfectly the first time, a process involving heat conditioning of the capsule walls then runs overnight. On day two, we formulate the slurry, adding some binder to help it adhere to the surface on which we are printing. Finally, we print the adhesive-backed sample labels — your “stickers” — using a flexographic press.

Manifold Record Material patent.jpg

The basic science behind the process was developed by chemists at the National Cash Register company in the 1950s, who were looking for a better way to make the customer copy of a receipt. Barrett K. Green and Lowell Schleicher were awarded a patent for their “Manifold Record Material,” or carbonless copy paper, in 1956.

A secretary, they explained, would simply put two sheets of paper in their machine — the top one coated with “a profusion of microscopic color-reactant-containing, pressure-rupturable capsules” and the bottom one sensitized with an “acid clay-like material,” and begin to type. Each keystroke would rupture only the microcapsules it hit, releasing colorless ink in a letter shape onto the bottom sheet, whose pH made the invisible droplets visible — thus creating a perfect copy without the need for carbon paper. With some reformulation (early versions exposed office workers to high levels of Bisphenol A), Green and Schleicher’s carbonless copy paper is still available today, providing non-electronic copies of prescription forms, parking tickets and more.

80s Scratch And Sniff Stickers.jpg

Rival company 3M quickly patented their own version of microcapsule-filled copy paper using a different wall material, and it was their marketing team that realized that the capsules could just as easily hold scented oil as ink. The late 1970s and early 1980s saw an explosion of scratch-and-sniff stickers, games, cards, books and even movies — cinema audiences for John Waters’ Polyester were given Odorama cards impregnated with smells of pizza, glue and feces.

Polyester Odorama.jpg

Today, microencapsulation technology is widely used to delay ingredient release in stain removers,pharmaceuticals and even packaged baking mixes, while scratch-and-sniff has retreated from popular culture to become the preserve of fragrance, cosmetics and household goods’ marketing materials. Nonetheless, Marine Ravera, Marketing Coordinator at Arcade, told me that they are “increasingly getting into more exploratory kind of work, where the goal is not selling things but raising people’s awareness and interest in smell.” Among their most exciting recent projects, for example, was using a new “peel and reveal” technology to create a souvenir program for perfumer Christophe Laudamiel’s 2009 “Scent Opera” at the Guggenheim.

Meanwhile, artist Sissel Tolaas has experimented in her lab to formulate a slurry that can be applied to a wall like paint (used to embed the smell of money into the walls of a Swiss bank’s wealth management offices) as well as a version that can be printed on T-shirts, “so you can wear your own sweat around, but it’s only released by touch.”

smell of fear sissel tolaas.jpg

Scratch-and-sniff microencapuslation is also amazingly durable. Spratt and Tolaas agree that you can scratch each sticker hundreds — even thousands — of times before all the tiny capsules are broken and their smell released.

It is precisely this aspect of scratch-and-sniff — the fact that the invisible smell information can only be revealed by touch — that makes it such a perfect technology for cartographic investigation. At my gallery opening, for example, I saw long-time New Yorkers and visitors alike became modern-day explorers, scouting this new world with their fingers and noses pressed up against the wall.

Leslie Vosshall and daughter Ophelia.jpg

A scratch-and-sniff map, in other words, forces us to relearn ourselves and our environment using only touch and smell. As Sissel Tolaas puts it, perfectly:

People don’t know how to communicate what they perceive through the nose, and so the city becomes a playground again. This is a lot of fun, but it’s also how we can acquire new knowledge — through this playful exploration.

[Note: Arcade Marketing generously made the stickers for my scratch-and-sniff map at no cost, while International Flavors and Fragrances (IFF) kindly donated two of the smells (including the galaxolide) and the Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior at The Rockefeller University shared their data and helped me dilute my smells. My installation, Scratch ‘N Sniff NYC, is on display through November 6 at the Pratt Manhattan Gallery, 144 West 14th Street, 2nd floor, New York, NY 10011; gallery hours are Tuesday-Saturday 11:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m. and entry is free.]

Images: 1. Instructions and sampling station for personal smell preferences, from Scratch  ‘N Sniff NYCby Nicola Twilley, photo by Andreas Keller of the Vosshall Lab; 2. Sissel Tolaas on a smell walk; 3. IFF’s headspace technology in action, photo courtesy IFF; 4. Aroma Emissions Analysis System drawing fromPatent 5355718, Braja D. Mookherjee et al.; 5. Comparison of GCMS results for a living and picked peach from “The chemistry of flowers, fruits and spices: live vs. dead a new dimension in fragrance research,” a 1990 paper by Braja D. Mookherjee, Robert. W. Trenkle, and Richard A. Wilson; 7. IFF Botanical Gardens, New Jersey, photo courtesy IFF; 8. Two scratch-and-sniff maps of NYC, showing majority smell preference and emerging, crowd-sourced personal smell preference side-by-side, from Scratch ‘N Sniff NYC by Nicola Twilley, photo by Andreas Keller of the Vosshall Lab; 9. Personal smell preference map, showing wildly varying smell descriptors, from Scratch ‘N Sniff NYC by Nicola Twilley, photo by Andreas Keller of the Vosshall Lab; 10. Drawing from Patent 2730456, “Manifold Record Material, Green et al.; 11. Collectible scratch-and-sniff stickers from the 1980s, via; 12 Odorama card for John Waters’Polyestervia; 13. Fear 9 by Sissel Tolaas, in which the gallery wall contains microcapsules of the recreated smell of sweat collected from the armpits of nine phobic men exposed to their worst fear; 14. Scientist Leslie B. Vosshall and her daughter Ophelia scratch and sniff New York City at the opening of the “You Are Here” exhibition, photo by Andreas Keller of the Vosshall Lab.

Smellscapes of Cape Town

19 Apr

The work of Sissel Tolaas on the smellscapes of Cape Town both may inspire us in thinking about Cape Town, but they are certainly an important point of reference for our upcoming project on the smellscapes of Istanbul this summer.

Istanbul Design Biennial programme announced

13 Mar

The programme of the first Istanbul Design
Biennial is announced

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The Istanbul Design Biennial, organised by the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts (İKSV) under the co-sponsorship of Eren Holding, Koray Group of Companies, Vestel and VitrA, will be held between 13 October–12 December 2012.

The biennial adopted the theme “Imperfection” at the suggestion of Mr. Deyan Sudjic, a member of the Istanbul Design Biennial Advisory Board and the Director of the Design Museum in London. The curators of the Istanbul Design Biennial Emre Arolat and Joseph Grima will present two independent approaches by interpreting the biennial theme separately. The exhibitions, exploring a wide range of fields from urban to architecture, industrial, graphic, fashion, new media design, and all relevant creative products and projects, will be at Istanbul Museum of Modern Art and Galata Greek Primary School while the biennial events will spread throughout the city.

The exhibition curated by Emre Arolat “Musibet: the Aestheticization of Context and Anti-Context in Design along the Axis of the Grand Transformation” will take place in Istanbul Modern. Under two main headings, “Transformation” and “Anti-Context”, Arolat will question urban transformation, public housing projects, and the social tension created by these in contemporary Istanbul by comparing them to other examples in the world, and explore ideas by local and global actors, newly accepted universals, changes in new technologies, and parallels between architectural and fashion design.

Curator Joseph Grima’s exhibition at Galata Greek Primary School will be titled “Adhocracy”, the opposite of bureaucracy. Grima aims to turn his exhibition into a stage for the current revolutionary changes in the design world, considering Istanbul Design Biennial as a laboratory rather than an exhibition platform. Starting out with the concept that final user is a part of the design and manufacture processes, the exhibition will have a dynamic, complex, and innovative structure, challenging the traditional relations between designer, user, manufacturer, and slow bureaucratic processes.

The deadline for applications to the Istanbul Design Biennial exhibitions is 2 June 2012.

As part of its educational activities, the Istanbul Design Biennial cooperated with 66 departments of various universities in Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir. In 2011–2012 academic year, urban design, architecture, industrial design, new media design, and fashion departments of universities will organise workshops, competitions, and special projects within the biennial theme. The outcomes of the projects will be exhibited in the faculty buildings. 


Workshops with designers and students, 22–27 March
Istanbul Design Biennial will organise a workshop programme in order to bring institutions, students, and industrial representatives together with designers. Details can be followed from the website.

Roundtable Meeting: “Why Biennial?”, 26 May
The Istanbul Design Biennial will host a roundtable meeting about the organisations focusing on design, with the participation of nine directors from different biennials and triennials of architecture and design. Mr. Giovanna Massoni, Director of Liege International Design Biennial; Mr. Matevž Čelik, Director of Ljubljana Bio-Biennial of Industrial Design; Ms. Elsa Francés, Director of St. Etienne Cite du Design; Mr. Guta Moura Guedes, Director of Experimenta Lisbon; Mr. José Mateus, Director of Lisbon Architecture Triennial; Dr. Serge Serov, Director of Moscow International Graphic Design Biennial; Mr. Youngwoo Lee, Director of Gwangiu Design Biennial; Mr. George Brugmans, Director of Rotterdam Architecture Biennial; Mr. Weiwen Huang, Director of Shenzhen-HongKong Bi-City Urbanism/Architecture Biennial, will participate in the meeting.

Participation will be free of charge and open to public.

Istanbul Design Biennial
Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts
Sadi Konuralp Caddesi No: 5
Şişhane 34433 Istanbul
T +90 212 334 07 65-66
F +90 212 334 07 19

Media Relations
Ms. Elif Obdan
T + 90 212 334 07 13
F + 90 212 334 07 16

Istanbul Design Biennial 2012

16 Feb

Istanbul Design Biennial


Istanbul Design Biennial 2012 – Open Call 

Gabriele Basilico, Istanbul 2010
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The first edition of the Istanbul Design Biennial will be realized between 13 October–12 December 2012 by the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts (IKSV), and will comprise a wide range of events, workshops, conferences and screenings centred around its exhibitions program. The Biennial’s two curators, Emre Arolat and Joseph Grima, will independently curate two exhibitions within the framework of the biennial theme, Imperfection, adopted at the suggestion of Deyan Sudjic, Director of The Design Museum in London and a member of the Biennial’s advisory board. The Biennial solicits submissions, proposals and recommendations for each of the exhibitions.The full exhibition outlines and submission guidelines can be reviewed on the website of the Istanbul Design Biennial.
Adhocracy (curated by Joseph Grima)
Musibet (curated by Emre Arolat)

Istanbul Design Biennial explores a wide range of fields, from urban design (environmental, urban and regional planning) to architecture, photography, industrial, graphic, fashion, textile and interaction design, and all related creative fields. There are therefore no disciplinary or geographic limitations to the projects that can be submitted for inclusion in the Biennial.

The deadline for submissions is June 2nd, 2012.

A full list of pre-events, workshops and activities can be found on the Biennial website.

Follow the Istanbul Design Biennial on Facebook and Twitter

Istanbul Design Biennial
Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts
Sadi Konuralp Caddesi No: 5
Şişhane 34433 Istanbul
T +90 212 334 07 65-66
F +90 212 334 07 19

Media Relations
Ms. Elif Obdan
T + 90 212 334 07 13
F + 90 212 334 07 16


Videos from the Winter 2012 Symposium

13 Feb

The Istanbul Art-Boom Bubble

12 Feb

Istiklal Caddesi, the central pedestrian artery of Istanbul.

Published: February 10, 2012

From the New York Times:

Earlier this winter, the giant 120-year-old Ottoman bank building in Istanbul reopened as a multimillion-dollar contemporary art space called SALT. This was surprising. Turks were never big on contemporary art, and for years rich people didn’t visit that part of town. When I moved to the neighborhood five years ago, it was all electrical-supply stores and abandoned buildings and men smoking. My building didn’t have heat; girlfriends wouldn’t visit after dark; a neighbor once attacked another neighbor with a small sword. I don’t see swords in Istanbul anymore. I do see a lot more art.

One evening in November, Turks and foreigners traipsed up the cobbled sidewalks to SALT’s huge, heavy doors for the opening-night party. The headline exhibit featured thousands of old black-and-white photographs taken by a dead Armenian studio photographer and carefully assembled by the young artist Tayfun Serttas. Another exhibit was an installation by Gulsun Karamustafa, Turkey’s doyenne of contemporary art. Another was about archaeology and Europeans looting the Ottoman Empire.

But the space overwhelmed the art. It was too magnificent. Nothing like SALT existed in Istanbul. Inside, the building was five floors and 100,000 square feet of carved white marble. Curators, bankers, interior designers, writers, musicians, academics, artists and wealthy wives craned their necks to take in the soaring ceiling as they climbed the grand staircases. They gaped at the stylish library, and the plush movie theater, and the smoking terrace that was also a restaurant. The great imperial bulk of SALT loomed over the Golden Horn and the forlorn rooftops below.

Foreigners and expats gushed with approval. Even the fatalistic Turks, skeptical of Westerners’ enthusiasm, couldn’t help admitting that this strange art institution was awesome.

It appears that Istanbul, which went from a cosmopolitan wonderland in the 19th century to, in the Nobel-winning novelist Orhan Pamuk’s words, a “pale, poor, second-class imitation of a Western city” for much of the 20th, is having its moment of rebirth. These newly wealthy corners of the East seem full of possibilities, but what kind of culture will the Turks create?

On my way out, I ran into Mari Spirito, a longtime director at 303 Gallery in New York. Spirito had just moved to Turkey to set up a nonprofit called Protocinema. Above our heads, Arabic script was etched into the marble: “He who earns money is God’s beloved servant.”

“In New York it feels like the best years are behind us,” she said. “In Istanbul it feels like the best years are yet to come.”

Read more:

Test Istanbul

2 Nov